We built the bulk of our PMT amplifier/processor/discriminator on a Universal PDIP Operational Amplifier Evaluation Module by Texas Instruments (model OPAMPEVM-PDIP). Click on the picture above for a full-size version of the picture.
I. Rech, I. Labanca, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova of the Politecnico di Milano in Italy described an interesting modification to the Perkin Elmer SPCM-AQR Single-Photon Counting Module (SPCM) to improve its timing characteristics in:
I. Rech, I. Labanca, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Modified single photon counting modules for optimal timing performance“, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 033104 (2006); doi:10.1063/1.2183299 (5 pages). Continue reading
In Chapter 5 of the book we list a short Matlab® program to integrate successive video frames from our diy intensified camera to image double-slit interference patterns obtained by shooting a single photon at a time.
The program listed in the book uses Vision for Matlab (VFM). However, this utility is not compatible with all versions of Windows and Matlab. An alternative is VCAPG2 by Kazuyuki Kobayashi available at http://www.ikko.k.hosei.ac.jp/~matlab/matkatuyo/vcapg2.htm (Also available from our SOFTWARE page). Continue reading
Figure 144 in the book shows the schematic diagram for our d.i.y. thermoelectrically cooled single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD). Our design calls for a ThermOptics DN1225 TEC controller. However, this model is not available any more. Fortunatelly, the ThermOptics’ DN1221 subminiature Bipolar Temperature Controller for Thermoelectric Coolers (TEC) is equally suitable by adapting the pinout and adjusting component values. Continue reading
Today we received the first two copies of the book! Amazon’s website says that it will be shipping on January 29, 2012.
From the back cover:
“Build an intuitive understanding of the principles behind quantum mechanics through practical construction and replication of original experiments.
With easy-to-acquire, low-cost materials and basic knowledge of algebra and trigonometry, Exploring Quantum Physics through Hands-on Projects takes readers step by step through the process of re-creating scientific experiments that played an essential role in the creation and development of quantum mechanics.
Presented in near chronological order—from discoveries of the early twentieth century to new material on entanglement—this book includes question- and experiment-filled chapters on:
- Light as a Wave
- Light as Particles
- Atoms and Radioactivity
- The Principle of Quantum Physics
- Wave/Particle Duality
- The Uncertainty Principle
- Schrödinger (and his Zombie Cat)
From simple measurements of Planck’s constant to testing violations of Bell’s inequalities using entangled photons, Exploring Quantum Physics through Hands-on Projects not only immerses readers in the process of quantum mechanics, it gives them insight into the history of the field—how the theories and discoveries apply to our world not only today . . . but also tomorrow.
By immersing readers in groundbreaking experiments that can be performed at home, school, or in the lab, this first-ever, hands-on book successfully demystifies the world of quantum physics for all who seek to explore it—from science enthusiasts and undergrad physics students to practicing physicists and engineers.”
Figure 144 in the book shows the schematic diagram for our d.i.y. passively-quenched SPCM based on a Perkin-Elmer C30902S-DTC SPAD.
In our circuit, the SPAD is reverse-biased through a 200kΩ resistor. This value is sufficiently large that an avalanche in the SPAD will be quenched by itself within less than a nanosecond. The pulses produced by the SPAD are AC-coupled to a fast constant-level discriminator which has an output that is compatible with TTL logic circuits. Continue reading
Our diy entangled-photon source, shown in the book’s Figure 142, uses two BBO crystals that support type I down-conversion that are mounted according to a design by Paul Kwiat and his colleagues at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
The nonlinear crystal in our photon entangler comprises two 5 mm x 5 mm x 0.1 mm BBO crystals mounted face-to-face at an angle of 90 degrees to each other. As shown in the book’s Figure 140, pump photons polarized at 45 degrees produce two cones of entangled down-converted photons.
This is the 405 nm pump laser used in the circuit shown in the book’s Figure 141. The laser is built from a Blu Ray disk burner laser diode. We drive the laser diode with 160 mA to produce around 100 mW of 405-nm polarized light. The laser diode is capable of producing 250 mW, but we prefer to drive it much more conservatively. Continue reading
Figure 34 in the book shows the schematic diagram for the photomultiplier tube (PMT) signal processing circuit that amplifies the narrow pulses detected by the PMT probe. The discriminator stage removes small pulses produced by thermal noise in the tube. A pulse stretcher outputs pulses that can be heard on a speaker. In addition, the analog output is suitable for use with a sound-card-based multichannel pulse-height analyzer (MCA). Continue reading
The book’s Figure 32 shows the schematic diagram for a low-cost, variable-voltage PMT power supply based on a BXA-12579 inverter module that is originally designed as a power supply for cold-cathode fluorescent lamps. This under-$20 module produces 1,500VAC at around 30kHz from a 12VDC input.
We are posting this picture to help you build your own power supply. It shows the BXA-12579 that has been modified as described in the book. The op-amp to the right of the CCFL module is used to control the voltage supplied to the module. The high-voltage AC output of the inverter is rectified and doubled and filtered by the diodes and capacitors at the left of the CCFL module. Continue reading
This picture supplements Figure 148 in the book. The colors should help you visualize the paths of the beams in our entangled-photon source: Violet – 405 nm pump laser beam; Pink – 810 nm signal and idler entangled-photon beams. A detailed schematic diagram for the entangler is available in the book’s Figure 147. Figure 149 shows the 405 nm beamstop. Continue reading
We are posting this picture to help you construct the variable-output, low-ripple, high-stability, high-voltage power supply described in pages 38-40 of “Exploring Quantum Physics Through Hands-On Projects.” The schematic diagrams for this power supply are in the book’s Figure 31. Output voltage (up to 2 kV) and current (up to 1 mA) are monitored via two LCD panel meters. Continue reading
Spectrum Techniques of Oak Ridge, TN – a top supplier of Exempt Quantity radioisotope sources and nuclear measurement instrumentation – released today our tutorial:
“Experiment Note: Exploring Compton Scattering Using the Spectrum Techniques Universal Computer Spectrometer” Continue reading
quTools of München, Germany is the maker of the quED quantum entangled state demonstrator system to generate and analyze polarization entangled photons. This system is a professionally-manufactured version of the type of entangled-photon generator used by many universities, and similar to the diy version described in Chapter 8 of our book (Figure 148).
quED employs a spontaneous parametric down conversion process (type I or type II; collinear or non-collinear) to generate polarization entangled photon pairs. Fiber-coupled single photon detectors in connection with polarizing filters are used to detect the photon pairs, analyze their polarizations and verify their non-classical correlations. Continue reading